Apples, native to Central Asia, have become an integral member of the New England community. Once established, an apple tree can produce an abundance of fruit for generations. There are thousands of named apple varieties and new varieties being named all the time.
Apples thrive in Vermont but are subject to a wide range of diseases and pests. Varieties selected for resistance to disease make it easier to grow high quality, attractive fruits, with better storage qualities. We have selected varieties that perform well in the local growing conditions, many of which are highly resistant to scab or other common apple diseases.
You need to have at least two trees for pollination. Apples are common enough in Vermont that you can often get away with planting one if a neighbor has a few trees. Wild trees or crab apples growing nearby can also serve as pollinators. More pollen often means more and larger fruit. Full size trees should be planted 25-35 feet apart, semi-dwarf trees 12-25 feet apart.
Apple Rootstock Information
Most all fruit trees are propagated via grafting. A branch or bud (scion) of a specific variety is attached to a compatible root-sytem (rootstock). The rootstock determines size and some growth characteristics of the tree. We offer trees on standard and semidwarf rootstocks. Full-dwarf trees may be available upon request.
Semidwarf trees may come into full bearing sooner than standards and do not grow as large (about 15 ft with pruning). However, they are typically not as long lived or well anchored. Semidwarf trees must have some pruning and may need staking. Semidwarf trees may not be hardy in the coldest parts of the state. We recommend standard trees for their robustness and longevity. We recommend semidwarf tree for those willing to undertake a little more management or with limited space.
Full size trees should be planted 25-35 feet apart.
Semi-dwarf trees (M7 or M111) 12-25 feet apart.
Full-dwarf rootstocks (such as B9) require permanent staking and careful attention to the soil, consider the vegetable garden. Not for beginners.
Standard: Antanovka,vigorous and disease resistant full size trees. With a little TLC these trees can last generations.
B118: Budagovsky 118. Semidwarf (85% standard). Reliably productive, hardy, and vigorous. Needs no staking.
B9: Hardy Full dwarf rootstock (30% standard). Compact and quick to bear heavy crops. Will need permanent staking and very good soil.
M111: Semidwarf or semi-standard (80% standard) Vigorous and adaptable disease resistant rootstock. Needs no staking.
M7: Semidwarf (50-65% standard). reliably productive, hardy and quick to bear. May need staking early in life.
Eggs are laid in the base of the trees and larvae grow inside the trunk of the tree as they bore their way through the tree for 2-3 years before hatching into an adult. Check the base of the tree for damage each spring or early summer. If you find holes or frass (orangish sawdust) remove dead bark and try to crush the borers with a piece of wire shoved into the hole. Crushing them is effective. Undiluted neem oil spray rubbed onto the trunk may also work.
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